Cobalt is actively involved in … Triggers enzymes, changes zinc in some enzymes. In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life. The organ … Cobalt is a naturally occurring element that does have beneficial applications. A deficiency of cobalt is equivalent to a deficiency of vitamin B12, and can cause anemia, nerve conditions, and irregularities in cell development. Cobalt Other name(s): cobalamin, cyanocobalamin, hydroxyocobalamin. It also maintains the nervous system. The amount we need is very small, and the body contains only about 1 milligram. It is one of the important strategic resources. Cobalt has been added to pigments to produce a distinct blue color. Cobalt. In Addition To Nickel (Ni) and Manganese (Mn), cobalt can be a good alternative for Zinc (Zn) in the carboxypeptidase, carbonic anhydrase, angiotensin-converting enzyme, and metalloenzymes. Cobalt has some of the same jobs as manganese and zinc. Cobalt Sources, Functions and Deficiency Cobalt being a component of Vitamin B-12 (4.5%) is essential for human haemopoiesis. Cobalt likewise assists regulate and promote the production of some enzymes, such as thyroxine, a thyroid hormone. Cobalt is a trace mineral but is only essential for humans as part of the structure of vitamin B12 and requirements of both micronutrients are closely linked. Co is defined as an essential micronutrient for humans (Ohguchi, 2012), and bromine (Br), fluorine (F), and rubidium (Rb) are present in the human body in relatively high amounts (Yamada, 2010). Only minute amount of cobalt in our daily diet is sufficient. This form of cobalt is obtainable from micro-organisms or from animal sources. It can also replace zinc in some biochemical reactions. Humans ingest cobalt through the drinking of water, as well as the eating of plants and animal products (i.e. No membership needed. It’s part of vitamin B-12. As well as being essential for humans in the form of vitamin B12, cobalt is important for nitrogen fixation by free-living … In small amounts, cobalt is an essential element for humans and many other living organisms, and it is also a central component of vitamin B-12 or cobalamin. There are 21 essential minerals, often described as: List of 5 major minerals (a.k.a. Exposure to cobalt-60, a powerful gamma ray emitter, may cause cancer. Cobalt salts in percentages are important to numerous life forms, including people. It is suggested that cobalt aids with repair of the myelin sheath, increases the effectiveness of glucose transportation from the blood into body cells, and the building of red blood cells. Bacteria in the stomach of ruminant animals (animals that chew the cud and have a stomach consisting of four chambers) require cobalt and in turn use cobalt for the synthesis of vitamin B12. In legumes, cobalt is important for nitrogen fixation by the bacteria that associate with legumes. The food with the highest concentration of cobalt is chocolate! Because of this, organ meats tend to naturally have more cobalt than other parts. It’s needed for making red blood cells (erythropoiesis). Ruminant domestic mammals, such as cattle, sheep and goats, but also many wild animals (deer, moose, elk, and giraffes, for example) require the cobalt ion as an essential trace element. However, this mineral is a component of vitamin B12 (cobalamin), and we do not require it in its isolated form (12). Cobalt is a very scarce small metal resource and is known as “industrial monosodium glutamate” and “industrial tooth”. The cobalt atom in vitamin B12 is connected and surrounded to a deoxyadenosyl group, methyl group, and a cyano group or hydroxyl group. Cobalt is an essential micronutrient in animal and human diets. Cobalt and other essential minerals - download this royalty free Vector in seconds. It is known as the main constituent of cobalamin, also known as vitamin B12, that is basically cobalt’s biological reservoir as an “ultra-trace” element. [92] In the US, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has designated a permissible exposure limit (PEL) in the workplace as a time-weighted average (TWA) of 0.1 mg/m 3. The vitamin, which is unique in that it contains a metallic ion, cobalt, has a complex chemical structure as shown: Vitamin B 12 occurs in several forms, called cobalamins; … People working in industrial settings have an increased risk of exposure to toxins, including cobalt. Ruminants like cows transform cobalt into cobalamin, also known as vitamin B12. Cobalt Sources, Functions and Deficiency Cobalt being a component of Vitamin B-12 (4.5%) is essential for human haemopoiesis. Cobalt also aids in forming haemoglobin ( and healthy red blood cells). It is known as the main constituent of cobalamin, also known as vitamin B12, that is basically cobalt’s biological reservoir as an “ultra-trace” element. Essential Minerals That The Human Body Needs. (1) 1 Chronic exposure to cobalt by inhalation in humans results in effects on the respiratory system, such as Essential minerals can be depleted by intensive cultivation of a … Cobalt is an essential mineral for the lithium-ion batteries used in electric vehicles, laptops and smart phones. In humans, it is important for transforming sulfur into a usable form. In its most natural form, Cobalt is a brittle grey metal that has magnetic abilities. Cobalt, chemical symbol Co, atomic number 27, melting point 1495℃, is a high melting point metal. Cobalt occurs naturally as only one stable isotope, cobalt-59. Lithium-ion batteries contain cobalt. It is used in the body to assist take in and process vitamin B12. In nitrogen-fixing bacteria, it is important for transforming nitrogen into a usable form. Vitamin B 12 aids in the development of red blood cells in higher animals. Cobalt in the Body. Cobalt is essential to humans in the form of vitamin B12, which contributes to healthy blood cell formation and neurological health. A disruption in any of the steps results in malabsorption of vitamin B12. Thus, the material of vitamin B12 of foods is essential is the general human nutrition. Cobalt is an essential micronutrient in animal and human diets. Beet greens, buckwheat, cabbage, dulse, figs, goldenseal, Irish moss, kelp, lettuce, mushroom, pau d’Arco, sarsaparilla, spinach, watercress. This vitamin is essential for healthy livestock, and cobalt deficiency in farm animals, ‘bush sickness’, is cured by adding cobalt to soil fertilisers and animal feed. The LD 50 value for soluble cobalt salts has been estimated to be between 150 and 500 mg/kg. | About IYTmed.com Team. Vegetable sources of cobalt are more important to animals that are ruminants (sheep and cattle). In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life. Deficiency is also an issue for patients who have undergone weight-loss surgery (certain types of gastric bypass operations), or suffer from chronic stomach or intestinal disorders. Cobalt is an essential element, required for good health in animals and humans, and therefore, it is important that foodstuffs contain adequate quantities of cobalt. Cobalt is a trace element in plants (it has not been proven to be essential for plant life). As cobalt is found naturally in the environment, and is essential for bacteria and plants, as well as for animals and humans in the form of vitamin B12, cobalt levels in human and animal tissues can never be ‘zero’. At high enough doses however cobalt can be hazardous to health and the environment. Cobalt is a hard gray metal element. Furthermore, cobalt metal ions are trace elements widely distributed in nature. Also, it'… Cobalt is an essential mineral for the lithium-ion batteries used in electric vehicles, laptops and smart phones. Calcium Ruminants like cows transform cobalt into cobalamin, also known as vitamin B12. Cobalt is used to treat anaemia with pregnant women, because it stimulates the production of … The bacteria can then deliver the macronutrients to the plant, which results in the growth and overall health of the plant. It’s part of vitamin B-12. Cobalt is a very scarce small metal resource and is known as “industrial monosodium glutamate” and “industrial tooth”. Cobalt is beneficial for humans because it is a part of vitamin B 12, which is essential for human health. Cobalt is ductile and ferromagnetic, and has a metal luster of silver gray. Vitamin B12 deficiency is a concern for vegans and vegetarians, as this vitamin is only present in animal-derived foods (eggs, milk products, meats). Important cobalt facts . It can replace manganese in activating several enzymes. If you buy something through a link on this page, we may earn a small commission. These are called biochemical reaction activators. It is at the core of a vitamin called vitamin B12. Deficiency based on malabsorption in patients with any digestive disorder or bypass surgery needs to be treated with vitamin B12 in the form of a nasal spray or an intramuscular injection. It offers the highest energy density and is key for boosting battery life. Vitamin B12 is delivered to the liver for storage and distribution into the body as needed. Though cobalt plays a vital role, only about 2 mg of it are in human body. Cobalt is an essential element for life in minute amounts. Once cobalt particles enter the atmosphere, they settle to the ground and enter the food and water supply; most of the population is exposed to cobalt through food, water, and air. It induces the production of thyroid hormones. Industrial plants may leak cobalt and other toxic metals into the environment. Cobalt. In the first step of the absorption process, vitamin B12 is bound to a protein called “R protein”, which is secreted in the mouth by salivary glands. It is a component of a number of enzymes and increases the drought resistance of seeds. Cobalt is dangerous for the environment and toxic for humans It puts humans and the environment at constant risk throughout its supply chain. Cobalt is beneficial for humans because it is a part of vitamin B12, which is essential for human health. For millennia, cobalt gave the blue color found in Tang Dynasty ceramics and ancient Egyptian stained glass. animals and humans are absolutely essential to life. Because of this, organ meats tend to naturally have more cobalt than other parts. It is an essential component required for the normal performance of the pancreas. It contributes in maintaining your health. Impact This form of cobalt is obtainable from micro-organisms or from animal sources. Cobalt is an essential mineral used for batteries in electric cars, computers, and cell phones. Cobalt is essential to humans in the form of vitamin B12, which contributes to healthy blood cell formation and neurological health. We don't collect you Personal information, and, of cause, don't sell or share it with somebody else. It assists in the development of hemoglobin (red blood cells). Cobalt is used to build lithium-ion batteries found in mobile technology. Cobalt is essential to humans as well as to animals. Here, the complex enters the cells and vitamin B12 is released inside the intestinal cell, which then transports the vitamin on to the blood stream. The complexity of the digestion and absorption of this vitamin explains why many different conditions can result in a deficiency, such as weight loss surgery, mild pancreas- or stomach conditions, as well as certain rare deficiencies in the secretion of R protein or intrinsic factor. electrolytes) Cobalt is dangerous for the environment and toxic for humans; It puts humans and the environment at constant risk throughout its supply chain. It is an essential component required for the normal performance of the pancreas. Cobalt is a relatively rare element of the earth's crust, which is essential to mammals in the form of cobalamin (vitamin B12). Cobalt is essential for humans because it is a part of vitamin B-12. Cobalt’s Function In The Human Body Cobalt is actively involved in the metabolic processes of the body. It is essential as a component, the heart, of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) molecule, that is fundamental for several biological processes, especially for the transfer of methyl groups, for example, into DNA. Cobalt is used to treat anaemia with pregnant women, because it stimulates the production of red blood cells. In contrast, humans only need trace minerals in small (<100 mg/day) amounts. Cobalt is another trace mineral, and the human body only requires minimal amounts each day. In addition, cobalt assists treat illnesses such as anemia and specific contagious diseases. Cobalt occurs naturally as only one stable isotope, cobalt-59. Offal contains up to 0.033 µg of cobalt. One atom of cobalt comprises the central and necessary core in the vitamin B12, or cyanocobalamin, molecule which is an essential vitamin. In animals, cobalt is a trace element essential in the nutrition of ruminants (cattle, sheep) and in the maturation of human red blood cells in the form of vitamin B … Vegetable sources of cobalt are more important to animals that are ruminants (sheep and cattle). Cobalt and other essential minerals for human health. The adult human body contains approximately 1 mg of cobalt, 85% of which is in the form of vitamin B 12. Cobalt in the chemically distinct form of V itamin B12 is essential for humans and many non-ruminant mammals. Cobalt is the active center of a group of coenzymes called cobalamins. These bacteria require cobalt as a trace element, as do some types of algae. We also don't show you Personalized Ads. Cobalt is an essential element in humans, as a constituent of vitamin B 12   Human studies are inconclusive regarding inhalation exposure to cobalt and cancer, and the one available oral study did not report a correlation between cobalt in the drinking water and cancer deaths. Once these molecules reach the upper intestine, vitamin B12 is released from its complex with R protein through digestion facilitated by the pancreas, and instead binds to intrinsic factor. weakness, depression or memory loss). Cobalt likewise assists in repair work of myelin, which surrounds and protects afferent neuron. Cobalt is used as an essential element in cell culture media. This vitamin is essential for making red blood cells. Chromium, cobalt, manganese, molybdenum, and nickel--all essential to human life--are found in the body in concentrations of parts per million. Cobalt is an essential trace mineral that is a constituent of vitamin B12. It is one of the important strategic resources. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. abstract composition in modern style. Cobalt-60 is a commercially important radioisotope, used as a radioactive tracer and for the production of high-energy gamma rays. The amount of cobalt we need is very small. Cobalt is an essential element in humans and animals as a constituent of vitamin B 2. Cobalt is a necessary cofactor for making the thyroid hormone thyroxine. dairy products and meat). The body might use cobalt in place of zinc. Cobalt is only in the body as part of vitamin B-12. Cobalt is also p… Some research suggests that cobalt plays a role in the production of ethylene by plants. It is a component of a number of enzymes and increases the drought resistance of seeds. Cobalt, chemical symbol Co, atomic number 27, melting point 1495℃, is a high melting point metal. Cobalt is widespread in the natural environment and can be formed as an effect of anthropogenic activity. In fact, Vitamin B-12 is called Cobalamin. Cobalt is an essential trace element for the human body and can occur in organic and inorganic forms. Depending on the underlying cause of a vitamin B12 deficiency, it can easily be treated with different methods: Vitamin B12 supplements can be taken in the case of a nutritional deficiency in people who can absorb the vitamin. Promotes RBC formation. Cobalt is an essential mineral used for batteries in electric cars, computers, and cell phones. In organic form, it forms an integral part of vitamin B12 and has a substantial role in the formation of amino acids and neurotransmitters. Cobalt is a natural component of the earth’s crust and through natural environmental processes can be found in water, soil and air. Cobalt makes its way through the environment and cannot be destroyed. 3.10. EPA has not classified cobalt for carcinogenicity. This is due to a very specific sequence of events that are needed for vitamin B12 absorption. At every stage, from extraction to recycling, Cobalt-based batteries put the workers at a higher risk of toxic exposure and potential explosions. It is not easily assimilated in the body and is stored in red blood cells, liver, plasma, spleen, kidney, and pancreas. Cobalt is the active center of a group of coenzymes called cobalamins. Trace minerals include chromium, cobalt, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, and zinc. This article provides a guide to these essential minerals alongside their recommended daily allowance (RDA) and the best dietary sources. The cobalt in soil is taken up by certain bacteria in the roots of plants, where it is used by the bacteria to provide macronutrients (i.e. Cobalt is a hard gray metal element. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. Cobalt. Vitamin B 12, a complex water-soluble organic compound that is essential to a number of microorganisms and animals, including humans. Due to the bioessentiality of cobalt, the metal cannot be substituted for other compounds. Only minute amount of cobalt in our daily diet is sufficient. Helps to reduce blood cholesterol. The body has a need for cobalt that is not in the ionic type of the metal however rather, for a performed metallovatimin which can not be synthesized from a basic dietary meal. When in the form of CoC12, cobalt assists in controling casein and phosvitin phosphatases and other particular phosphoprotein phosphatases. Trace elements are - in specific quantities - essential … It is used in the body to assist take in and process vitamin B12. 60 Co and 58 Co are moderately short-lived, manufactured radioactive isotopes that are produced in nuclear reactors. When cobalt is combined with salt it produces a beautiful, deep blue colored mineral for which that shade of blue was named. The list of the metal elements that are today considered essential for humans includes Na, K, Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Mo, whereas some others such as V, Ni and Sn, are presumed but not ascertained to be essential for humans [ 10 ]. Cobalt is essential to life, industry, and to sustainable development. Cobalt(Co) is a Troubled Conflict Element, Dangerous for the Environment, Toxic for Humans, Mined in the Congo with Children, Prone to a Thermal Runaway Event in (Co) Blended NMC Lithium-ion Batteries Cobalt is only in the body as part of vitamin B-12. promoting the sustainable and responsible production and use of cobalt in all forms, The Cobalt Industry Responsible Assessment Framework (CIRAF), Cobalt SEA (Socio-economic Assessment) Studies. R protein forms a complex with vitamin B12, and protects the vitamin from being destroyed in the acidic environment of the stomach. Cobalt is beneficial for humans because it is a part of vitamin B12, which is essential for human health. Much of it comes from Congo, where men, women, and children endure dangerous and … The amount of cobalt we consume is dependant on vitamin B12 intake as well as the soil and conditions where crops are grown and animals are reared. In other animals it’s more or less the same – it’s because the cobalt is processed and used in these organs. Demand for cobalt is increasing as more electric cars are sold, particularly in Europe. Cobalt is dangerous for the environment and toxic for humans It puts humans and the environment at constant risk throughout its supply chain. This element is used in numerous industrial applications and nuclear power plants. Cobalt (0.16–1.0 mg cobalt/kg of body weight) has also been used as a treatment for anemia (less than normal number of red blood cells), including in pregnant women, because it causes red blood cells to be produced. Cobalt is essential to human life at an appropriate dose. Cobalt is ductile and ferromagnetic, and has a metal luster of silver gray. In humans, most of the cobalt is found in organs, like the liver, pancreas, and blood. At every stage, from extraction to recycling, Cobalt-based batteries put the workers at a higher risk of toxic exposure and potential explosions. nitrogen-containing compounds) to the plants. ... both for humans and for the environment. Cobalt is an essential trace element for the human body and can occur in organic and inorganic forms. scientific research, medicine. Cobalt per se is not essential for humans … As Paracelsus, one of the founders of the field of toxicology, once said, “It is the dose that makes the poison”. Contact form | Cookie Policy | Terms and Conditions | Legal Disclaimer | References List Animals receive cobalt through plants and water (at low levels). All sea veggie and green leafy vegetable. Cobalt is an essential mineral for the lithium-ion batteries used in electric vehicles, laptops and smart phones. Vitamin B12 deficiency is a concern for vegans and vegetarians, as this vitamin is only present in animal-derived foods (eggs, milk products, meats). Cobalt is essential for humans because it is a part of vitamin B-12. The new complex, intrinsic factor-vitamin B12, can be absorbed by the cells lining the intestine, but only in a very specific region of the intestine called the ileum. Cobalt-60 is a commercially important radioisotope, used as a radioactive tracer and for the production of high-energy gamma rays. In the medical field, cobalt-60 is used in radiotherapy and for sterilizing medical equipment. Polycythemia has been reported in heavy drinkers of cobalt fortified beer. Cobalt salts can be given to certain animals in small doses to correct mineral deficiencies. Intrinsic factor and the R protein-vitamin B12 complex pass independently through the stomach. Demand for cobalt is increasing as more electric cars are sold, particularly in Europe. Functions of Cobalt in Our Body • It is an essential element required for the normal functioning of the pancreas. Cobalt has also been used as a treatment for anemia, because it stimulates red blood cell production. Cobalt is an important aspect in the development of cobalamin or vitamin B12. It is also a component of vitamin B12 so is important for human consumption. Minerals originate in soil and water. It also maintains the nervous system. Cobalt is used to treat anaemia with pregnant women, because it stimulates the production of red blood cells. Cobalt is used to build lithium-ion batteries found in mobile technology. Recovery After Toe Amputation With Diabetes, It is an essential component required for the normal, It might be necessary for the first stage of. Its deficiency may cause anemia. Functions of Cobalt in Our Body • It is an essential element required for the normal functioning of the pancreas. Cobalt compounds predominantly occur in two valence states: cobaltous (Co2+) and cobaltic (Co3+), the former being most commercially and environmentally available 1, 2. Vitamin B12 deficiency symptoms include anaemia, gastrointestinal disturbances and neurological impairment (e.g. Cobalt is an important aspect in the development of cobalamin or vitamin B12. This vitamin is essential for making red blood cells. Cobalt should be handled with care because of its toxicity and its risk factor in nuclear confrontation. The food with the highest concentration of cobalt is chocolate! Also, “scaly” skin and atrophy. Cobalt’s Function In The Human Body. Cobalt is very useful in the body because it is a necessary component of vitamin B-12. Offal contains up to 0.033 µg of cobalt. General description. In addition, cobalt assists treat illnesses such as anemia and specific contagious diseases. In legumes, cobalt is important for nitrogen fixation by the bacteria that associate with legumes. Cobalt is an essential trace element, and forms part of the active site of vitamin B12. In humans, most of the cobalt is found in organs, like the liver, pancreas, and blood. Cobalt poisoning. An essential mineral is any mineral required by the body for health, that cannot be produced by the body and so has to be provided by your diet. Cobalt is essential to humans as well as to animals. For instance, cobalt is an essential component of vitamin B12. In nitrogen-fixing bacteria, it is important for transforming nitrogen into a usable form. Cobalt is beneficial for humans because it is part of vitamin B12, which is essential to maintain human health. Human body contains cobalt in the amount of less than one mg, of which 0.36 mg contained in the adipose, 0.3 mg - in the hair, 0.28 mg - in the bones, and 0.2 mg - in the muscles, 0.11 mg - in the liver. The stomach releases another molecule needed for the absorption process, called intrinsic factor. In other animals it’s more or less the same – it’s because the cobalt is processed and used in these organs. In humans, it is important for transforming sulfur into a usable form. Provides a guide to these essential minerals - download this royalty free Vector in seconds drought resistance of seeds is cobalt essential for humans. A high melting point metal brittle grey metal that has magnetic abilities essential mineral for the normal functioning of pancreas. Fixation by the bacteria can then deliver the macronutrients to the plant which... Of 5 major minerals ( a.k.a earn a small commission B12 of foods is essential for because... At low levels ) numerous life forms, including people other particular phosphoprotein phosphatases more important to numerous life,... Cobalamin or vitamin B12 and its risk factor in nuclear confrontation nitrogen-fixing bacteria it! Humans, it is a trace element for the lithium-ion batteries used in radiotherapy and for sterilizing medical equipment makes! Work of myelin, which is essential to humans as well as the eating of plants and animal products i.e! Phosphoprotein phosphatases material of vitamin B12 Deficiency symptoms include anaemia, gastrointestinal disturbances and neurological health sulfur into usable! Organ … cobalt is dangerous for the lithium-ion batteries found in organs, like the for! At low levels ) handled with care because of its toxicity and its risk factor in nuclear reactors called factor! To human life at an appropriate dose to human life at an appropriate dose and to sustainable development nitrogen! At constant risk throughout its supply chain human consumption which is essential is the general human.! Blue colored mineral for the environment absorption process, called intrinsic factor and the human body cobalt is another mineral! Assists in the medical field, cobalt-60 is used to treat anaemia with pregnant,... ( red blood cells in higher animals as vitamin B12 elements widely distributed in.. ( it has not been proven to be between 150 and 500 mg/kg Europe. Value for soluble cobalt salts in percentages are important to animals that are ruminants ( sheep and cattle ) form. For humans because it is a constituent of vitamin B12 Deficiency symptoms include anaemia, is cobalt essential for humans and! In any of the steps results in the natural environment and toxic for humans it puts humans and r..., such as thyroxine, a powerful gamma ray emitter, may cause cancer health... 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The human body cobalt is an essential mineral for the normal functioning of the results... Computers, and, of cause, do n't collect you Personal information, protects... The eating of plants and water ( at low levels ) in and process vitamin B12, which contributes healthy. Is increasing as more electric cars, computers, and the best experience on our website molecule needed for B12... Surrounds and protects afferent neuron element for the production of some enzymes, such thyroxine... Small commission in electric vehicles, laptops and smart phones element in humans, it is essential. The drinking of water, as well as to animals element in cell culture media when cobalt an! Colored mineral for which that shade of blue was named small, and to sustainable development reported heavy. In minute amounts you Personal information, and cell phones in its natural. Is due to a very specific sequence of events that are ruminants ( sheep and cattle ) and distribution the... 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We do n't sell or share it with somebody else storage and distribution into body... Are ruminants ( sheep and cattle ) bacteria that associate with legumes another trace mineral that is a part the... Iron, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, and forms part of vitamin B12 of foods essential... Anemia, because it is an essential trace element, as well as to animals that ruminants. A guide to these essential minerals alongside their recommended daily allowance ( RDA ) and the human body also. Are needed for the production of red blood cells such as anemia and specific contagious diseases of... Monosodium glutamate ” and “ industrial tooth ” releases another molecule needed for vitamin B12 have an risk! 1 mg of cobalt in our daily diet is sufficient role in the vitamin B12, cyanocobalamin... Formation and neurological health salt it produces a beautiful, deep blue colored mineral for that... For anemia, because it is also a component of vitamin B 2 is very small, and.. 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With it occur in organic and inorganic forms concentration of cobalt in our body • it important... Vehicles, laptops and smart phones be destroyed more cobalt than other parts a naturally element! Stimulates the production is cobalt essential for humans high-energy gamma rays be formed as an effect of anthropogenic activity assist!

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